Energy: Prospects and Alternatives

-----------General----------- --- Energy Sources, Media --- ------------Solar------------
Context Fuel Cells Solar Power - Thermal
World Energy in General Wind mills, turbines Solar Associations, Organizations
Crisis? What Crisis? Nuclear Solar Books, Magazines
Alternative, Renewable Energy Fossil Fuels - Coal & Petroleum Documents, Tutorials, HowTo's
Government & Research Agencies Biomass Band Gap, Spectrum, etc.
Electrical Distribution Hydrogen INcoming SOLar radiATION
Renewable Energy Enthusiasts GeoThermal Commercial - Manufacturers
Conservation, Efficiency Tidal Power Commercial - Dealers
LED Lights Stirling Engines Solar Trackers, Concentrators
Energy Subsidies, Tax Incentives etc. SPS - Space Power Satellites Inverters
Renewable/Alternative Energy Dealers Batteries Solar Roof Tiles
Energy News Promising New Technologies Solar Payback Time & Energy
Solar News Energy Miscellaneous PhotoVoltaic Efficiency
The Gee Whiz File Solar Lists, Portals Solar Miscellaneous

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In 1962 Kardashev (1) came up with an interesting way of classifying civilizations according to the amount of energy used.
Type I the resources of a planet
Type II the resources of a solar system
Type III the resources of a galaxy

The sun produces approximately 4*10^26 watts of energy.
The earth receives approximately 1.7*10^17 watts of energy.
Humans use approximately 12*10^12 watts of energy.

The forms of the energy humans use worldwide are:
Oil 37%
Coal 24%
Natural Gas 21%
BioFuels 14%
Hydro 2%
Nuclear 2%

These particular statistics come from Energy, A Guidebook , however similar numbers, plus or minus a few percent, are available from several sources, such as:

These percentages define the energy problem humans face. About 80% of the energy is derived from non-renewable fossil fuels which aggravate globalwarming .

The relevant questions are:

The goal here is to generate solutions, not despair.


Energy, A Guidebook

World Energy in General

"It is difficult for people living now, who have become accustomed to the steady exponential growth in the consumption of energy from fossil fuels, to realize how transitory the fossil fuel epoch will eventually prove to be when it is viewed over a longer span of human history. The situation can better be seen in the perspective of some 10,000 years, half before the present and half afterward. On such a scale the complete cycle of the exploitation of the world's fossil fuels will be seen to encompass perhaps 1,300 years, with the principal segment of the cycle (defined as the period during which all but the first 10 percent and the last 10 percent of the fuels are extracted and burned) covering only about 300 years."

Crisis? What Crisis?

Alternative, Renewable Energy

Government & Research Agencies

Energy News Stories

Renewable &/ Alternative Energy Enthusiasts

Conservation, Efficiency

LED Lights, Light Pipes

Energy Subsidies, Tax Incentives, Business Incentive Loans etc.

Renewable/Alternative Energy Dealers - Commercial

Electrical Market &/ Distribution

Energy Miscellaneous

Fuel Cells

Wind mills, turbines


Fossil Fuels



GeoThermal, Ground Heat Pump Systems

Tidal Power, Wave Power

Stirling Engines

SPS - Space Power Satellites


Promising New Technologies aka The Gee Whiz File

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Last modified February 24, 2008